The first attempts to do scientific research of mechanisms of yoga exercises effect were made more than a hundred years ago. As medical science has been advancing and getting more sophisticated, the said issue was over the past period repeatedly come back to. Yet this subject cannot be referred to as thoroughly studied, and it continues to leave more questions than answers. On the other hand, in view of rapidly growing interest in Yoga worldwide there is a great need for scientifically valid approach to its practice. The book that you now hold in your hands is unique since it comes as a result of research activities performed by qualified medical experts who have at the same time been experienced yoga practitioners. This kind of synthesis has enabled investigational study of asanas and pranayamas influence mechanisms, as well as development of methodical framework for establishment of science-based Yoga Therapy. Much work has been done by the authors in each of the said fields; they have suggested and verified original ideas and outlined strategic pathways that shall continue to be relevant over years and decades. In view of heterogeneous audience, much attention has been given to promotion of the obtained results. The book shall be helpful to Yoga teachers health professionals engaged in this sphere.